Bystander Effect: Everything You Need to Know
The bystander effect happens when the presence of other people dissuades someone from taking action in an emergency, against a bully, or during an attack or other crime because they are there. The more bystanders there are, the less likely it is that any of them will step in to aid someone who needs it. When there are few or no other witnesses present, people are more inclined to act in a crisis.
Knowledge of the Bystander Effect
Following the notorious killing of Kitty Genovese in New York City in 1964, social scientists Bibb Latané and John Darley popularised the idea of the bystander effect. Several neighbors reportedly neglected to intervene to help or contact the police when the 28-year-old lady was fatally stabbed in front of her apartment.
Latané and Darley linked the bystander effect to the social impact and the dispersal of responsibility. According to the concept of perceived diffusion of responsibility, people would feel less personal obligation to take action if there were more observers. Social influence means that people keep an eye on the actions of others around them to guide their conduct.
Why do some individuals refuse to assist in a crisis?
When they see someone in danger or being assaulted, it’s common for individuals to freeze or fall into shock. This is often a reaction to fear: the concern that you are incapable of assisting, that you could be misinterpreting the situation and seeing a risk where none exists, or that getting involved might endanger your life.
What contextual elements support the bystander effect?
It can be challenging to pin down why people choose not to take action. Still, in cases of sexual assault against women, research has shown that witnesses who are male, have sexist attitudes, or are under the influence of drugs or alcohol are less likely to actively assist a woman who appears too incapacitated to consent to sexual activity.
Can there possibly be a beneficial bystander effect?
The same characteristics that boost the bystander effect may also raise the helping behavior. People are more inclined to act appropriately when they perceive “the crowd” to be watching them and when their behavior is consistent with their social identities. For instance, someone who considers themselves pro-environment would recycle more diligently if they feel watched.
What increases the likelihood that bystanders will stop bullying?
Even good individuals may participate in inappropriate actions (thus the frequent justification of “only following instructions”). An “upstander” is someone who speaks out against bullying. Upstanders are self-assured in their morals and judgment and are sure their actions will impact them. Because they pause to reflect before acting, they are more likely to make the appropriate decision.
How to Act Like an Active Bystander
Bullying and other crimes often end only due to the involvement of bystanders. With awareness and, in certain situations, intentional instruction, the bystander effect’s description of social and behavioral paralysis may be lessened. Students are encouraged to speak out when they see a bullying incident or a possible attack on college campuses and in secondary schools.
One strategy is to act as if you are the first or only person to notice an issue. When someone takes action, even if it’s only to yell, “Hey, what’s going on?” or “The cops are coming,” other people may be inspired to follow suit. Given that the active bystanders are the most successful when they believe they are the only ones in command, offering other bystanders instructions on how to help might be crucial.
How do you keep from becoming a complacent bystander?
A simple “Stop” or “Help is on the way” may stop additional damage from occurring; don’t rely on others to take action right away in a crisis. Use a firm, calm voice to speak out. Give instructions to others so they may become engaged in assisting as well. Make every effort to keep the victim secure, and don’t be hesitant to ask for help if you need it.
Is it unethical to refuse to assist in a crisis?
Bystanders are often seen as morally culpable if they have the opportunity to save the life of another person without endangering themselves. However, the law usually does not require the ordinary citizen. But in certain countries, it is against the law to ignore someone in need due to duty-to-rescue legislation.
If you do attempt to assist someone, are you in danger legally?
Yes, if they become involved, some persons may be held legally liable for the results. The fear of legal repercussions may significantly impact the bystander effect. Good Samaritan laws, which provide legal protection to people assisting victims, have been implemented in several countries to encourage bystanders to take action. These laws, however, are often restricted.
How may the bystander effect be overcome?
It is beneficial to develop traits like empathy while learning how to be an active bystander. Try to imagine yourself in the victim’s shoes. Think more about the example you are establishing for future generations and less about the consequences of your actions. Pick out one person in the crowd to establish eye contact if you are the victim. If given the opportunity, people’s innate propensities for altruism may inspire them to provide a hand.