Uncovering the Devastating Impact of World War II on American Education
War may be good for a nation’s economy, but it’s horrible for a nation’s education.
In the United States, World War II, like the Great Depression, had a devastating effect on education. Much united effort was directed toward war resources and away from social programming. School funding was not immune, and much of the budget reserved for schools was redirected to support the Allied war effort. Both teachers and youth left the classroom to enlist. Dropouts became common, and school enrollments declined even further. High school enrollments were down from 6.7 million in 1941 to 5.5 million in 1944. By 1944, only two thirds of the pre-war teaching force was still teaching.
Military enrollment had another, more unexpected, consequence on education in America. Enrollment required academic testing, and many enlistees failed examination. Many military officers strongly criticized both the progressive education movement and the lack of a formalized curriculum focusing on subjects beneficial to defense. These vocal criticisms contributed to progressive education falling out of favor and the adoption of more formalized curricula in postwar years.
Employment and education opportunities increased for women during World War II. Because men were leaving their ordinary occupations to fight in the war, women stepped in to fill the gaps. More women were offered opportunities for education, and many found employment in the teaching field. One harbinger of hope for many schools was the Lanham Act of 1941, which provided aid to school districts that were overburdened with an influx of children from families employed in defense.
Higher education incomes fell, and the ability to generate income would have been much worse had it not been for specialized training and research needs of the federal government. Moreover, with colleges and universities playing a major role in educating people for the war industries and for wartime essential services, a sort of balance could be achieved in terms of income to these institutions.
During the postwar years, with veterans returning from the war, there was a coordinated effort to provide assistance to them, especially those whose education had been stopped as a result of military service. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the GI Bill, assisted nearly 8 million World War II veterans in a number of areas, including funds to attend school.
To learn more about how war and economic turmoil impacted education in the 20th and 21st centuries, check out our other articles on topics from the influence of the Great Depression on modern American schooling to how the Obama Administration has handled the effects of NCLB and where government is moving education toward now.