Teaching Readers Sounds & Symbols
As language is one of the primary tools of human communication, it has evolved into a complex system of sounds and symbols. Every language consists of a unique set of sounds and symbols, each with a distinct meaning and function. These two elements work together to form words, sentences, and ultimately, meaning.
Sounds and symbols are the building blocks of language. Sounds are the acoustic vibrations produced when air flows through the body and creates different sounds depending on the position, shape, and movement of the lips, tongue, and throat. In contrast, symbols are visual representations of speech sounds or meanings, such as letters, words, and punctuation marks.
The relationship between sounds and symbols is evident in written languages where letters or characters represent sounds. For instance, the English alphabet contains 26 letters, each used to represent a unique sound or phoneme, which is the smallest unit of sound that can change the meaning of a word. For example, the letter p represents the phoneme /p/, which differentiates between the words “pat” and “bat.”
Orthography, the study of written language systems, is a field dedicated to understanding the relationship between sounds and symbols. Orthographers analyze the sound patterns of speech and their corresponding symbols to create coherent writing systems. The writing systems of different language-speaking communities are built upon their unique sound patterns and symbols, representing the culture and heritage of their speakers.
However, some writing systems have been devised without any direct link to the sounds of the spoken language. The Chinese writing system is a prime example of a logographic system, in which symbols represent whole words, and the sound of the word is not explicitly represented. The symbols of the Chinese writing system are ideograms, which convey meaning through an iconic representation of the object or concept they represent.
Besides, sounds and symbols are not only used for written communication but also spoken. An example is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a standardized system of symbols designed to represent every possible sound that humans can produce. This system is used to transcribe the sounds of any language, without resorting to a particular language’s orthography, which may vary from one language to another.
In conclusion, sounds, and symbols are the fundamental elements of language, working in tandem to effect communication. It is essential to understand the relationship between both and how they work together in different language systems. The study of phonetics and writing systems can further our understanding of the complexities of language and how we communicate with each other.