Teaching & Learning Strategies, Concepts, and Terms That Every Teacher Must Know: Letters PRA-PRE
To be considered a competent educator, there are almost 2000 strategies, concepts, and terms that you must know. However, since teachers wear so many hats, who has the time to learn them all? Don’t worry; we have you covered. In this series, we will discuss all the teaching and learning strategies, concepts, and terms that you need to know to be considered an effective educator. There are over 70 articles in this series, so pace yourself. We recommend reading one piece per weekday, which will allow you to complete the series in three to four months. We hope you enjoy it.
Pragmatic Cue System A set of rules which allows for a message to be interpreted based on the social positioning of the author and audience as well as within its social context.
Pragmatics The cultural and social dynamics we use to develop and employ communication.
Pragmatism Can be defined literally as work. A more precise definition is that, using our ideas with a predefined purpose, we base actions on those ideas to determine whether or not the purpose can be achieved through them. During this process, we encounter consequences, which are of varying desirability. Pragmatists believe we should select the ideas, actions, and consequences with the most desirable outcome as well as learn from previous experiences to ensure that we apply the same ideas and actions in later situations to achieve similarly desirable consequences. Pragmatism focuses on dynamic problem solving, rather than learning the basics.
Praxis Series Is the shorthand for the “Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers.” These assessments come in the form of a series of tests – an unsurprising thing to find in the field of education. Whether you are considering a traditional teacher education program or an alternate-route program, it’s important to understand the Praxis series of tests. Praxis was developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) as a means of putting theory into practice.
Precanonical Vocalizations Sounds that occur from birth to six months of age that can include grunts, squeals, vowel sounds, clicks, cries, or laughter. These sounds lack the true form of syllables.
Preconcepts Piaget’s name for a child’s first attempts at forming an idea or notion. These preconcepts often signify that the child’s concept of the world is ruled by their perceptions.
Preconventional A stage of moralistic thinking in which the individual focuses on the physical consequences of their actions regardless of right and wrong. Based on a theory developed by Kohlberg.
Preconventional Level of Morality The first and second stages in Kohlberg’s model of moral reasoning in which individuals weigh value-laden factors and make moral judgments based on their interests.
Predictable Text Text that helps emergent readers anticipate what the authors will say through rhythmical or repetitive patterns.
Predictive Validity The reliability of a test to predict future behavior or outcomes.
Prefix A collection of letters before a (base) word that can alter the word’s meaning. Examples include: un-, de-, in-, non-, or ex-. Prefixes themselves have meanings. For instance, the prefix un- means not.
Prefrontal Cortex The part of the brain involved in reasoning, logic, problem-solving and other executive functions.
Prejudice Negative thoughts and opinions about a group of people.
Prejudice Reduction A critical goal of multicultural education and a model which seeks to develop positive relationships and foster tolerance among students coming from different backgrounds.
Premack Principle A rule which claims that recreational activities that bring pleasure can help individuals participate in activities they find less enjoyable.
Preoperational Stage A developmental phase in which children learn to represent things in the mind.
Pre-Reader A student that does realize or comprehend that text has meaning.
Prereading Plan (PreP) A teaching idea used to engage prior knowledge about a topic, provide new vocabulary, and make connections. While students are getting used to the idea of creating a PreP, the teacher will provide an idea and students must brainstorm related words or concepts.
Prereading Stage The first phase of reading which involves scanning or skimming the text and viewing information such as titles, headings, summaries, illustrations, and topic sentences to activate schema and facilitate reading comprehension.
Prerequisite A required class that has to be completed before a student is allowed to register for a more difficult one.
Preschool Is an institution of learning that offers an education to children before they enter kindergarten.
Present Level of Development A student’s developmental status at the time of assessment.
Presentation Mode The method by which a learning situation or activity is presented to a child.
Presentation Punishment The use of unpleasant or displeasing stimuli to reduce the reoccurrence of a particular behavior by causing an individual to avoid the behavior in the future.
Preservice Programs Training that individuals undergo prior to receiving certification or employment as an educational professional.
Press Conference A project-based activity in which students have researched a given topic and their peers, acting as the audience, raise questions as if they were participating in a press conference.
Preteaching A strategy for English language learners that involves a short time away from the rest of the class where students can learn a concept being taught later or learn how to make a graphic organizer that other classmates already know how to use.
Previewing A reading comprehension strategy where students engage their prior knowledge, establish a purpose for their reading and making predictions or inferences about the text.