Teaching & Learning Strategies, Concepts, and Terms That Every Teacher Must Know: Letters PH
To be considered a competent educator, there are almost 2000 strategies, concepts, and terms that you must know. However, since teachers wear so many hats, who has the time to learn them all? Don’t worry; we have you covered. In this series, we will discuss all the teaching and learning strategies, concepts, and terms that you need to know to be considered an effective educator. There are over 70 articles in this series, so pace yourself. We recommend reading one piece per weekday, which will allow you to complete the series in three to four months. We hope you enjoy it.
Phase-Out/Phase-In Strategy A method that promotes independent reading by gradually transferring teacher-posed questions to student-posed ones.
Phillips 66 Brainstorming A problem-solving technique in which a group of six people brainstorms for six minutes and then a spokesman for each group presents either the best ideas or all ideas to the larger group.
Philosophies of Education Refer to the sets of beliefs commonly held by educators on how and what should be taught. Educational philosophies are based on branches of philosophy that developed over the course of human history. These branches of philosophy were adapted and specialized into theories, which were then adapted into theories that deal specifically with education. There are seven major educational philosophies of the process of education. These philosophies can be broken down further into three primary groups: teacher-centered, student-centered, and society-centered philosophies.
Philosophy for Children A set of 6 textbooks that contains fictional stories about children and teens that spend much of their time thinking. The stories were developed by Lipman to teach children and teens about thinking.
Philosophy of Education Statement Is a written description of what we interpret the best approach to education to be.
Phoneme (a.k.a. phonogram) The tiniest sounds in a word.
Phoneme Blending The capacity to take little sounds (phonemes) in a word and blend them together to form a word.
Phoneme Isolation The capacity to isolate a specific sound in a word.
Phoneme Manipulation The capacity to “play” with sounds in a word by blending, isolating, and segmenting them.
Phoneme Segmentation The capacity to take a word and break it into separate phonemes (or little sounds).
Phoneme Substitution A verbal act in which the speaker replaces a sound within a word with another.
Phonemes The sounds that letters and letter combinations make.
Phonemic Awareness The capacity to hear the small sounds (or phonemes) in a word.
Phonics Knowing the relationship between letters and the sound(s) that they produce.
Phonological Awareness The capacity to perceive sounds within a word.
Phonological Impairment Phonological impairment is one of the most common forms of speech sound disorder with cognitive linguistic difficulties that include the learning of the phonological system or language. Phonological impairment is characterized by pattern-based speech errors such as velar fronting. These errors may be delayed for a child’s age or disordered.
Phonological Processes Phonological processes are descriptive terms for pattern-based errors in children’s speech. These can be divided into three categories that include assimilation processes, substitution processes, and syllable structure processes. Syllable structure processes include weak syllable deletion, reduplication, cluster reduction, and final consonant deletion among others. Substitution processes can include fronting, gliding, and stopping as examples. Assimilation processes in comparison include partial regressive nasal assimilation and complete regressive velar assimilation.
Phonological System A structure of individual sounds in language which understands how these sounds combine to make words as well as the effects of stress, pitch, and juncture on language.
Phonology The study of speech sounds and the structural relationships of the elements of speech within individual words and across language as a whole.
Phonotactics Rules for what speech sound can occur in a language and how those speech sounds combine to create words is known as phonotactics. An example would be that phonotactics guide the number of syllables that are permissible in words, permissible as word positions for vowels and consonants, the type of consonants and vowels that can combine in syllables, the presence/absence of consonant clusters at the beginning or end of syllables, and the number, type, and sequence of consonants that can form a consonant cluster. Additionally, the presence or absence of lexical tones and harmony patterns in included. Phonotactics give rise to a variety of parts that are permissible in a language including vowels, consonants, word shapes and lengths, and syllable shapes and consonant clusters.
Photographs of the Mind A teaching idea designed to help students share their mental images that they create while reading a text. They must stop at four designated points to sketch their mental images.
Phrase Structure Rules Basic formatting for a sentence based on patterns.