Teaching & Learning Strategies, Concepts, and Terms That Every Teacher Must Know: Letters DO-DY
To be considered a competent educator, there are almost 2000 strategies, concepts, and terms that you must know. However, since teachers wear so many hats, who has the time to learn them all? Don’t worry; we have you covered. In this series, we will discuss all the teaching and learning strategies, concepts, and terms that you need to know to be considered an effective educator. There are over 70 articles in this series, so pace yourself. We recommend reading one piece per weekday, which will allow you to complete the series in three to four months. We hope you enjoy it.
Doctorate (Ph.D.) The highest degree conferred by an institution of higher education.
Document Panels Panels that document examples of and reflect on a child’s learning progress over time.
Documentation Panels Materials that display the process a child worked through to complete a project including the end-products, photos, teacher notes, and conversations.
Dominant Group The cultural group that has been imitated by other institutions in society. This can include the group’s values and behavior. For much of the United States, the dominant group would be middle class, white, English-speaking persons.
Dominant Language The language in which a multilingual speaker has the highest aptitude or that the speaker uses more often.
Dormitories (dorms) Student housing provided by a university of higher education. Usually called a “residence hall.”
Double Entry Journal A medium for informal writing having two columns for two different varieties of student responses to the text.
Double Entry Journals A teaching tool that helps teachers achieve various goals related to students’ educational activities, including monitoring their reading outside of class, promoting reflection, and providing a solid foundation for class discussion, conferencing, and peer interaction. Also known as Learning Logs, these journals are split in the middle wherein, on the left side, students summarize or record key ideas from a chapter they have read, and on the right side, they write reflections or questions about the information written on the left.
Double Major A degree program that allows students to fulfill the course requirements for two majors simultaneously.
Drafting Stage A step in the writing process in which students externalize their ideas in writing. Informal writing such as journal entries, open-ended responses, and reading strategy applications generally stop at this stage, while formal writing such as research papers continue beyond this step to all stages of the writing process.
Dramatic Arts A form of expression in which students can respond to stories and demonstrate their content-related knowledge through role-playing, acting, and dramatic performance.
Dramatic Play When a child pretends to be someone else and uses improvisational skills to create and act out dramatic scenes.
Dramatized Problem-Based Learning An interactive inquiry-based teaching method in which students ask questions to identify and resolve a problem while engaging with the people involved in the problem.
Dropout Rate Represents the percentage of youth, ages 16-24, who are not currently enrolled in school and have not received a GED or high school credential.
Dual Code Theory of Memory A research-based conjecture that information coded both visually and verbally is better retained in memory than information coded in only one of the two ways.
Dual Coding Theory A model based on the claim that that learners can reflect on and recall information better the more they connect linguistic communication with other expressive forms.
Dual Degree A degree program that allows students to receive two degrees from a college or university.
Dual-Enrollment Allows high school the ability to enroll in college courses while they are in high school, and consequently receive credit for both.
Dual-Language Education Language learning initiatives that strive to prepare students to compete for jobs in a globalized, multi-language speaking world. The methods used in each school vary. For example, some teachers may teach half of the school day in English and half in another language. Beyond the job prospects and global advantages, education experts say that dual-language programs can also attract middle-class families to attend poorer schools they may otherwise evade.
Due Process In education, refers to laws pertaining specifically to education and mean that fairness should be rendered in all areas and that teachers’ rights or students’ rights, as individuals, should under no circumstances be violated.
During-Reading Stage The second phase of reading which involves a reader’s direct interaction with the text.
Dynamic Assessment An assessment that uses mediated learning experiences to learn more about a specific child’s abilities and learning style.
Dynamic Assessment The one-on-one teaching of a specific skill based on a one-on-one interview between a teacher and student using obtainable assessment data.
Dynamic Assessments Assessments in which a student is tested, instructed in test-taking skills by a teacher, then retested to assess the change in test score. This method of assessment is thought to identify gifted students from disadvantaged backgrounds through their above-average improvement in score. Developed in Israel to assess immigrant students with learning disabilities.
Dyscalculia Is a learning disorder that is marked by an inability to learn foundational math skills. Many people with this disability can learn very advanced mathematics concepts and principles, but it is hard for them to process formulas or do elementary math computations. Many people with this disorder also struggle with visual-spatial relationships or processing what they hear. Dyscalculia can differ from person to person.
Dysgraphia Is a learning disability that is marked by difficulty in performing handwriting in addition to having issues with fine motor skills. People who suffer from dysgraphia have problems forming letters correctly, putting thoughts on paper, zipping a jack, tying their shoes, etc. Many students who suffer from dysgraphia often develop solid verbal skills to compensate for their handwriting issues. Because little research has been conducted on this learning disability, it is often misdiagnosed.
Dyslexia Is a reading disorder in which a learner has difficulty recognizing letters and learning letter sounds, despite normal intelligence. It decreases the processing of graphic symbols, especially those related to language. Children who have dyslexia may experience late language development and have problems learning how to write and spell when they enter formal schooling. Symptoms include poor literacy skills, reversed letter and word sequences, and poor handwriting. The good news is that if the student is diagnosed with dyslexia early enough, more than likely they will learn to read.
Dysnomia Is a learning disability that is marked by difficulty in recalling words, names, numbers, etc. from memory. The real problem stems from the fact that the words that they can not remember are essential, as they are needed for oral or written expressive language. The person may provide a detailed description of the word in question but is unable to recall its exact name. Dysnomia is often misdiagnosed as expressive language disorder. If your child is exhibiting any of these symptoms, take them to see a neurologist as soon as you can.
Dyspraxia Which is also known also as Apraxia, is a learning disability that is marked by difficulty in carrying out routines that require the use of balance, fine-motor skills, and coordination. Usually, we think of these children as merely being “clumsy” or “awkward.” Children with dyspraxia need to treated by an occupational therapist to strengthen their fine and gross motor skills. Verbal Dyspraxia describes a lowered ability to use speech sounds, which is usually the sign of a developmental delay. Verbal Dyspraxia can be separate from or accompany dyspraxia. Children with dyspraxia may also suffer from slightly slurred speech and short-term memory loss.
Dystonia An involuntary muscle contraction that is sustained for a period of time, resulting in stiffening of the body or twisting the body into unnatural positions.