Classical Idealism: Everything You Need to Know
This is a collection of theories that were proposed by Plato and Socrates. These theories pondered on the nature and principles of knowledge, reality, and the human experience. It emphasizes the use of criticism to understand information and come up with useful conclusions. It believes that forms are structured in a hierarchy, at the top of which sits the various forms of good.
Plato believed people should primarily focus on their search for truth because the truth is eternal and perfect, which can’t be found in the constantly changing and imperfect world of matter. Mathematics shows the possibility of eternal truths. For instance, all points on the circumference of a perfect circle are equidistant from the center. This had always been true, even before people ascertained it, is still true, and will always be true. In other words, mathematics displays that universal truths with which everyone can agree could be found. However, mathematics covers just a solitary domain of knowledge. This made Plato believe that humans must seek other universal truths in newer areas, like politics, education, and society. Therefore, he touted the search for absolute truth as the true philosopher’s quest.
A key criterion of classical idealism is the separation of the world of matter from the world of ideas, which Plato mentioned in The Republic. According to him, at the highest point of the world of ideas sits the Good, which is the source of true knowledge. But people shouldn’t trust the world of matter, which is the constantly changing domain of sensory data. Instead, they should free themselves from their concern with matter, as it’ll let them move toward the Good. Plato wrote that this could be achieved by rising above the world of matter through the use of critical discussion or investigation (dialectic), in which an individual transcends from mere opinion to true knowledge. Plato viewed the dialectic as a medium for progressing from a matter related to the material world to one related to the world of ideas.
Classical idealism focuses on the realm of being or the world of ideas, which is believed to be the source of peace and happiness. This is in contrast to the realm of change, which is considered to be the source of pain and gloom. In the domain of education, it’s important to understand the duality of these two worlds, where one is constant while the other is changing. This will help discover and develop each individual’s full moral excellence and abilities to enable them to better serve society.